what types of microorganisms are considered a biological hazard

What Types of Microorganisms are Considered a Biological Hazard?

Do you need urgent biohazardous materials disposal in Los Angeles? Call Restorerz Emergency Services at (323) 997-4978 for speedy, professional services.

With uncountable numbers of microscopic organisms on earth, it’s important to distinguish between harmless and harmful microorganisms. Thanks to centuries of research, we know more about these organisms and can now separate them.

So, what types of microorganisms are considered biological hazards? The organisms that are considered biological hazards include viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi (mold). These biological agents are dangerous because they can cause various health problems, including tetanus, food poisoning, respiratory infections, and parasite infection.

Humans come in contact with these biological hazards through air, food, and water. Biohazard cleanup by Restorez helps reduce the risk of transmitting these microorganisms to the barest minimum. This article will look at these microorganisms in more detail.


Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms, and billions exist all around you, including inside other living organism. Most bacteria serve a purpose. They support different plant and animal life forms and are useful in many medical and industrial processes.

There are many different types of bacteria across the universe, but scientists group them according to the following shapes:

  • Spherical bacteria (e.g., streptococcus)
  • Rod-shaped bacteria (e.g., anthrax)
  • Spiral bacteria (e.g., treponema—responsible for syphilis)

Some of the diseases bacteria can cause in humans include:

  • Typhoid
  • Pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis
  • Bubonic plague
  • Cholera
  • Diphtheria
  • Dysentery
  • Tetanus
  • Botulism
  • Diarrhea

The bacteria that cause some of the diseases above thrive in dirty environments. Treating them and the mediums they may thrive in as biohazards is the best way to prevent transmission to humans.


Viruses are microorganisms that only thrive and multiply in hosts such as animals, plants, and humans. They are complex organisms that trigger different reactions in different ways. Viruses are responsible for viral diseases like:

  • Smallpox
  • COVID-19
  • Most types of flu
  • Mumps
  • Common cold
  • Hepatitis
  • Chickenpox
  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Polio
  • HIV
  • Ebola
  • Zika
  • Dengue Fever

Viruses spread through:

  • Direct contact
  • Bodily fluids
  • Touch
  • Respiratory droplets
  • Insects
  • Mother-to-child transmission
  • Contaminated food and water

Professional biohazard handling reduces the risk of spreading viruses through some of these transmission channels.


When answering the question, “What types of microorganisms are considered biological hazards?” parasites go under the radar. However, they are hazards that endanger the lives of millions globally each year.

Parasites live inside host organisms and depend on them to grow and multiply. While many parasites are microorganisms that are not visible to the human eyes (e.g., malaria parasites), others can grow as long as 35cm.

Parasites enter a human host through:

  • Insect bites
  • Person-to-person contact
  • Mishandling of human waste
  • Contaminated food and water


These are microorganisms like mushrooms, yeast, mildew, and mold. Fungi reproduce by releasing small, lightweight spores which can travel far distances in the air. The spores can last long in adverse environmental conditions, which explains why mold and other types of fungi are resilient.

Mold receives the most attention among fungal microorganisms because of its influence on public health. It produces irritants, allergens, and in some cases, toxic substances. As a result, it’s one of the leading causes of asthma in allergic and vulnerable populations.

Mold also produces mycotoxins, which cause health problems when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through the skin.

What Are Other Types of Biological Hazards?

Other types of biological hazards include:


Biotoxins encapsulate any biological substances that are poisonous and toxic to humans. Most biotoxins come from bacteria, insects, plants, and animals. Prolonged exposure to these biotoxins can lead to adverse physiological reactions.

Blood and Blood Products

Blood is not a biological hazard—unless it is contaminated or comes from an infected source. Blood products like white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, tissues, and plasma are all hazardous if poorly handled.

Environmental Specimens

Environmental specimens refer to plants, soil, organic matter, and water containing biological hazards. So, scrapings of mold-heavy paint qualify as environmental specimens that require professional handling.

What Are the Different Methods of Biohazard Waste Disposal?

The major methods of biohazard waste disposal include:


This process uses high-temperature steam to destroy biohazards completely. It’s a highly effective method because it is more affordable than other waste disposal options. It also doesn’t put the biohazard disposal staff a risk of contamination or infection.

Biohazardous waste handling companies use autoclaving to sanitize 90% of the waste materials before sending them to a landfill.


Incineration burns biohazardous waste at high temperatures. It’s fast, easy, and simple. However, the emissions can be dangerous. Incinerators for processing biomedical waste require careful planning. Disposal teams site these incinerators away from local populations.

Use of Chemicals

Chemical disinfection is the biomedical waste disposal method of choice for liquid biohazardous waste.

The chief chemical constituent is chlorine, which can kill pathogens and microorganisms. It’s possible to use chemical disposal when dealing with solid wastes, but you must grind the materials first to ensure full decontamination.


This process involves creating a solution of shredded biohazardous waste and heating the solution in a compartment to kill microorganisms and pathogens. The process is more energy efficient than incineration and works for all biohazardous waste types.

Is it Possible to Safely Dispose of Biohazardous Waste Without Professional Help?

It’s possible to dispose of small quantities of biohazardous waste without professional help if you have the right gear and know how to complete the process safely without putting yourself and everyone around you at risk.

However, it’s best to always seek professional advice when dealing with biohazards that can trigger community health concerns.

Request Fast Emergency Biohazard Cleanup Services 

We hope our article on “What types of microorganisms are considered biological hazards?” was helpful. Do you have any biohazard materials you need to dispose of? Contact the Restorerz Emergency Services team today.

Mishandling biohazards puts you and everyone around you at risk. Don’t ignore it. Our team can safely dispose of contaminated feces, urine, and blood. We can also clean infected or contaminated surfaces and dispose of contaminated clothing and such personal effects.

Call Restorerz Emergency Services at (323) 997-4978 to book an appointment. Learn why you should hire a professional biohazard cleanup team today.

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